Ischemic preconditioning for prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy: randomized pilot RenPro Trial (Renal Protection Trial).
Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanism has been attributed in part to ischemic kidney injury. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial was to assess the impact of remote ischemic preconditioning on contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury.
Methods and Results
Patients with impaired renal function (serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dL or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2)) undergoing elective coronary angiography were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to standard care with (n=50) or without ischemic preconditioning (n=50; intermittent arm ischemia through 4 cycles of 5-minute inflation and 5-minute deflation of a blood pressure cuff). Overall, both study groups were at high risk of developing contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury according to the Mehran risk score. The primary end point was the incidence of contrast medium-induced kidney injury, defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dL above baseline at 48 hours after contrast medium exposure. Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury occurred in 26 patients (26%), 20 (40%) in the control group and 6 (12%) in the remote ischemic preconditioning group (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.57; P=0.002). No major adverse events were related to remote ischemic preconditioning.
Remote ischemic preconditioning before contrast medium use prevents contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury in high-risk patients. Our findings merit a larger trial to establish the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on clinical outcomes.